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599 - 937 AD

c.600 - Welsh bard, Prince Aneirin of the Northern Pennines, writes the poem, Y Gododdin, recording the events of the Battle of Catterick.

601 - The Synod of Chester. Death of St. Asaph, Bishop of Llanelwy.

602 - St. Augustine of Canterbury meets with the Welsh Bishops at Aust near Chepstow. He accuses them of acting contrary to Church teachings, failing to keep Easter at the prescribed Roman time and not administering baptism according to the Roman rite. He also insists that they help in the conversion of their enemy, the Saxons, and look to Canterbury as their spiritual centre. The Welsh tactfully decline.

604 - The Welsh Bishops meet for a second time with St. Augustine of Canterbury. He neglects to rise to greet them, lectures them again and insists they submit to him. The Welsh send him packing. They refuse to recognise the authority of a church within their enemies' territory under such a disrespectful bishop.

607 - Death of King Judhael of Domnonée. His son, Haelioc takes the throne and attempts to exterminate his brothers.

612 - Death of St. Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow. Death of King Hoel III of Brittany.

613 - King Aethelfrith of Bernicia invades Gwynedd in order to route out his old enemy, King Edwin of Deira. A united British force (Gwynedd, Powys, Pengwern and Dumnonian warriors) clashes with his army at the Battle of Chester. Kings Iago of Gwynedd and Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys and Prince Cadwal Cryshalog of Rhos are all killed but the victor is unclear. The Battle of Bangor-is-Coed follows in quick succession. King Bledric of Dumnonia is killed in the fighting and 1000 monks are massacred by the Northumbrians.

614 - King Cynegils of Wessex invades Dumnonia and defeats the local army (possibly under a King Clemen) at the Battle of Bindon.

c.614 - Proposed annexation of Powys by the Dogfeiling Prince, Eluan Powys, with the help of his brother, King Cynddylan of Pengwern, "oppressor of the Cadelling". The sons of the Cadelling king, Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys, are later described as "landless oafs". The Tarvin-Macefen boundary between Powys and Mercia is delineated.

617 - King Edwin of Deira invades and conquers Elmet. King Ceretic of Elmet is killed in the fighting.

c.620 - King Tewdrig Fendigaid of Glywysing & Gwent abdicates in favour of his son, Meurig. King Llywarch Hen is expelled from South Rheged, probably by King Edwin of Deira. Llywarch flees to Powys and becomes a famous bard.

c.623 - King Edwin of Deira is baptised by Prince Rhun of North Rheged, according to the Historia Brittonum. This may have been at the Royal Court of Gwynedd.

625 - King Cadfan of Gwynedd dies and is buried at Llangadwaladr where his memorial stone can still be seen. His son, King Cadwallon, succeeds to the throne. St. Tysilio re-founds the Monastery of Meifod.

c.625 - Death of King Haelioc of Domnonée. His brother, Judicael, succeeds to the throne.

c.626 - The rivalry between King Cadwallon of Gwynedd and King Edwin of Deira reaches a climax. Edwin invades the Isle of Man and then Anglesey. Cadwallon is defeated in battle and is besieged on Puffin Island. He eventually flees to Brittany.

629 - St. Paulinus meets Blecca, the Praefectus Civitatis of Lincoln, and converts him to Christianity.

630 - The West Saxons invade Gwent. King Meurig defeats them, with the help of his aging father, at the Battle of Pont-y-Saeson. Death of King Neithon of Strathclyde.

c.630 - King Penda of Mercia besieges Exeter (possibly held by King Clemen of Dumnonia). King Cadwallon of Gwynedd lands nearby, from his Deiran imposed exile in Brittany. He negotiates an alliance with King Penda of Mercia and a united British and Saxon force moves north to re-take Gwynedd. The Deirans are defeated at the Battle of the Long Mountain and Cadwallon chases them back to Northumbria. The British ransack Northumbria and bring the kingdom to its knees.

632 - King Idris of Meirionydd is killed fighting the West Saxons on the Severn.

633 - The British, under King Cadwallon of Gwynedd, meet the Northumbrians in the Battle of Hatfield Chase. King Edwin of Deira is killed in the fighting and Cadwallon is victorious. Cadwallon is later besieged at York by Edwin's cousin and successor, Osric. The former is again victorious.

634 - King Cadwallon of Gwynedd slays both Kings Eanfrith of Bernicia and Osric of Deira rather than negotiate peace with them. Eanfrith's half-brother, Oswald succeeds to a united Northumbria. He gathers a force and clashes with King Cadwallon of Gwynedd at the Battle of Heavenfield. Cadwallon is killed and Oswald victorius. Cadafael Cadomedd usurps the Gwynedd throne and ousts Prince Cadwaladr. Civil War ensues in the kingdom. Death of the great poet, King Llywarch Hen of South Rheged, supposedly aged one hundred.

635 - King Judicael of Domnonée submits to the overlordship of King Dagobert of the Franks. An alliance is drawn up and the borders of the Breton kingdom agreed.

c.635 - King Meurig of Glywysing & Gwent invades Ergyng and re-unites the two kingdoms in the right of his wife.

636 - King Judicael of Domnonée abdicates in order to enter the Monastery of St. Meven at Gaël. His brother, St. Judoc, declines the throne and flees to Ponthieu.

637 - Death of the retired King Judicael of Domnonée.

638 - Edinburgh is besieged by the Angles of Northumbria. Princess Rhiainfelt, heiress of North Rheged, marries Prince Oswiu of Northumbria. Northumbria embraces North Rheged in a peaceful takeover.

640 - Death of St. Tysilio, Abbot of Meifod.

642 - King Penda of Mercia commands a united British and Mercian force against King Oswald of Northumbria. The British contingent includes the army of Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd, Eluan of Powys and Cynddylan of Pengwern. Oswald is killed, and possibly Eluan also. The Mercians become dominant in Midland Britain. King Owen of Strathclyde halts Scottish expansion by killing King Domnal Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle of Strathcarron.

c.645 - Gwynedd and much of Wales is in the grasp of famine. Would be King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of Gwynedd flees to Brittany. Civil War continues in his kingdom.

c.650 - King Cloten of Dyfed marries Princess Ceindrech of Brycheiniog and unites the two kingdoms.

655 - King Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd and his army join King Penda of Mercia and march on the Northumbrians. Penda clashes with King Oswiu at the Battle of Winwaed, but Cadafael withdraws before the battle begins.

c.655 - King Morfael of Pengwern (re-)takes Wall (Staffs).

656 - King of Oswiu of Northumbria invades Pengwern and kills King Cynddylan in battle. His brother, King Morfael, and the remains of the family flee to Glastening. Mercians take control of Pengwern and may have invaded Powys at this time.

658 - King Cenwalh and the Wessex Saxons make a push against Dumnonia (possibly under a King Culmin). They are victorious at the Battle of Penselwood and the Dumnonia-Wessex border is set at the River Parrett. Death of King Judicael of Brittany.

661 - King Cenwalh of Wessex invades Dumnonia. He is victorious at the Battle of Posbury. Saxon settlers found Somerset in Eastern Dumnonia.

662 - Death of King Brochfael of Meirionydd

664 - Plague devastates Gwynedd. Probable death of King Cadafael Cadomedd there. King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of Gwynedd reasserts himself in his kingdom by sending his son, Ifwr, from Brittany to be regent. The Synod of Whitby determines that the Northern British should comply with the doctrines of Rome.

665 - The Second Battle of Badon

675 - Death of St. Judoc.

c.680 - St. Boniface educated at a Celtic Christian Monastery in Exeter.

682 - The West Saxons "drove the British [of Dumnonia] as far as the Sea" (possibly around Bideford).

685 - St. Cuthbert visits Carlisle. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria marches his army north to engage the Picts at the Battle of Nechtansmere. The Scots and Strathclyde Britons probably join the Picts in a thorough defeat of the Saxon forces. The latter withdraw and lose much land south of the Forth to King Dumnagual of Strathclyde in the process.

688 - King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of Gwynedd dies on a pilgrimage to Rome.

690 - Death of King Alain II Hir of Brittany.

700 - King Gerren of Dumnonia receives a letter from St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, during his attendance at a Church Synod in Wessex. He insists that the Celtic Church of Dumnonia comply with the doctrines of Rome, as agreed with the Northern Celtic Church thirty-six years previously at the Synod of Whitby.

703 - Death of King Daniel Dremrudd of Brittany.

c.705 - King Gerren of Dumnonia grants land at Maker to Sherborne Abbey in an attempt to strengthen his position in the disputed regions of Dorset.

710 - King Gerren of Dumnonia clashes with King Ine of Wessex who manages to establish a fortress at Taunton.

c.710 - King Seisyll of Ceredigion invades Dyfed and conquers Ystrad Towi to create the greater kingdom of Seisyllwg. A reduced Dyfed and Brycheiniog both appear to have taken on the name of Rhainwg: King Rhain's kingdom now sliced in two.

712 - Death of King Idwal Iwrch of Gwynedd

717 - Death of St.Winnoc, Abbot of Wormhout.

c.720 - Contact between the Welsh Church and Yvi of Brittany is the last known link between the two Celtic countries. After this, each nation goes its own separate way.

722 - King Ine of Wessex attempts a takeover of Dumnonia. His armies are crushed and have to withdraw. Death of King Bili of Strathclyde. King Teudebur succeeds to the throne.

c.730 - Civil War between King Tewdr of Brycheiniog and a rival claimant to his throne, his cousin, Awst. The latter is slain. Tewdr is persuaded to live in peace with Awst's son, Elwystl.

c.731 - King Elisedd of Powys expels the Mercians from his kingdom.

c.740 - Death of King Rhain of Dyfed & Brycheiniog. His kingdoms are divided between his two sons.

743 - Kings Aethelbald of Mercia and Ceolred of Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.

c.744 - Construction of Wat's Dyke. The border between Mercia and Powys is set here.

750 - The Strathclyde Britons under King Teudebur defeat Prince Talorgen of the Picts at the Battle of Mugdock. Decline of the power of King Angus I of the Picts.

c.750 - Prince Elidyr ap Sandde moves the exiled Royal House of South Rheged from Powys to the Isle of Man. King Tewdr of Brycheiniog breaks the peace with his cousin, Elwystl, and murders him.

752 - Death of King Teudebur of Strathclyde. His son, Dumnagual, succeeds to the throne and promptly loses Kyle to King Eadberht of Northumbria.

754 - Death of King Rhodri Molwynog of Gwynedd. His sons, Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel succeed to the throne.

756 - Kings Angus I of the the Picts and Eadberht of Northumbria attack King Dumnagual of Strathclyde at Dumbarton. However, Eadberht's entire force is subsequently wiped out, probably by the Britons, at the Battle of Newburgh-on-Tyne.

760 - The Battle of Hereford is fought probably between the Mercians and the Kingdom of Brycheiniog under King Nowy Hen. Death of King Dumnagual of Strathclyde.

768 - Archbishop Elfoddw of Gwynedd persuades the Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter as agreed by the Northern British Church at the Synod of Whitby.

784 - Construction of Offa's Dyke, the artificial bank and ditch boundary between England and Wales, is begun at the command of King Offa of Mercia.

c.795 - Quarrels between Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel leave the way open for Caradog ap Meirchion (of the House of Rhos) to usurp the throne of Gwynedd.

797 - Welsh forces, including those of Powys and Dyfed, clash with the Mercians at the Battle of Rhuddlan, when King Coenwulf tries to re-assert his domination of North-East Wales. King Maredydd of Dyfed is killed in the fighting. The Mercians push on westward.

798 - King Caradog of Gwynedd is killed fighting the Mercians of King Coenwulf in Snowdonia. Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel retake the throne.

c.805 - King Egbert of Wessex formally establishes kingship over the people of Devon after a gradual integration over many years. Dumnonia is reduced to cover only the Cornish in Cerniw.

807 - Death of of King Arthwyr of Ceredigion.

808 - Death of Kings Rhain of Dyfed and Cadell of Powys.

809 - Death of Archbishop Elfoddw of Gwynedd.

810 - St. Davids is burnt.

811 - Death of King Owain of Dyfed. His son-in-law, Hyfaidd takes the throne.

812 - Degannwy, the capital of Gwynedd, is struck by lighning and burnt to the ground.

813 - King Hywel and Cynan Tindaethwy of Gwynedd quarrel again and meet in battle. Hywel is victorious.

814 - Prince Gryffydd of Powys is slain through the treachery of his brother Elisedd. King Cynan Tindaethwy of Gwynedd invades Anglesey and attacks his brother, Hywel. Hywel is victorious and Cynan is driven from his shores.

815 - The Kingdom of Cerniw is raided by King Egbert of Wessex and his Saxon armies from East to West.

816 - King Hywel of Gwynedd is again attacked by his brother King Cynan on Anglesey. Cynan is killed. The English successfully invade Rhufoniog and also ravage the Snowdonia Mountains.

818 - King Coenwulf of Mercia raids Dyfed.

821 - King Coenwulf of Mercia dies in Basingwerk while preparing for another assault on Powys.

823 - The Mercians invade Powys, but are beaten back by King Cyngen. They also destroy the Gwynedd capital, Degannwy.

825 - Death of King Rhodri of Gwynedd. The kingdom is seized by his grand-nephew, Prince Merfyn Frych of Man (and South Rheged). The men of Cerniw make a push into Saxon Devon and the two armies clash at the Battle of Galford. The Cornish are probably victorious.

c.830 - Nynniaw, Abbot of Bangor Fawr, compiles the Historia Brittonum.

831 - Death of Bishop Sadyrnfyw of St. Davids.

838 - The British of Cerniw join forces with the Vikings and attack Saxon Wessex. King Egbert defeats them at the Battle of Hingston Down.

840 - Nobis becomes Bishop of St. Davids.

844 - Death of King Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd. His son, Rhodri Mawr, succeeds to the throne.

848 - The armies of Brycheiniog and Gwent clash at the Battle of Ffinnant. King Ithel of Gwent is killed in the fighting.

c.850 - "Eliseg's Pillar" is erected in Llantysilio-yn-Ial by King Cyngen of Powys as a memorial to his great grandfather King Elisedd (or Eliseg) and the power of the Powysian dynasty. Bishop Censteg of Dingerein (Cerniw) accepts the authority of Archbishop Ceolnoth of Canterbury.

853 - Mercia and Wessex attack Powys.

854 - King Cyngen of Powys dies on a pilgrimage to Rome. His throne is seized by his nephew, King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, and his sons expelled.

855 - Anglesey is ravaged by Dublin Vikings.

856 - King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd & Powys repels a major Viking invasion of Wales and kills their king, Gorm.

871 - Dumbarton, capital of King Artgal of Strathclyde, is destroyed by King Olaf of Norse Dublin and his Viking warriors.

872 - Death of King Gwrgon of Seisyllwg by drowning. The throne is taken by his son-in-law, King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd & Powys. King Artgal of Strathclyde is slain through the connivance of King Constantine I of Alba and his Viking allies. Artgal's son, Run, succeeds to the Strathclyde throne.

874 - Death of Bishop Nobis of St. Davids.

876 - Death of Dungarth, the last King of Cerniw. He was drowned during a hunting accident and buried at St. Cleer.

877 - The Vikings invade Wales once more and King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys & Seisyllwg is forced to flee to Ireland.

878 - King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys and Seisyllwg returns to his kingdoms, but is killed fighting the Mercians of King Ceolwulf II. His kingdoms are divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Merfyn and Cadell respectively. The Vikings winter in Dyfed. Death of King Run of Strathclyde. His son, Eochaid, succeeds to the throne and allies himself with his mother's cousin, King Giric of Alba. The two rule all Scotland together as joint-monarchs.

880 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd initiates a revenge attack on the Mercian armies and defeats them on the River Conwy.

c.881 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd and his brothers begin extensive military campaigns to quell resistance in Powys and Seisyllwg.

885 - Asser, a relative of Nobis, Bishop of St. Davids, is summoned to the court of King Alfred of England. He agrees to spend six months of the year in the King's service. Asser helps to enhance the literary status of the English Court and also to negotiate the recognition of Alfred as overlord of the South Welsh Kings.

c.885 - Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing are harassed by the armies of King Anarawd of Gwynedd. They seek the protection of King Alfred of England and submit to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance with the Norse Kings of York.

889 - Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba, Strathclyde & the Picts are deposed by Viking invaders. The former's cousin takes the throne as King Donald II. The end of independent Strathclyde rule.

890 - King Donald II of Alba expels the British aristorcracy of Strathclyde. They flee south to North Wales.

893 - Death of King Hyfaidd of Dyfed.

c.893 - Asser, the Welshman, is made Bishop of Sherborne.

894 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd's shaky alliance with the Vikings collapses. His kingdom is ravaged by the Norsemen. Anarawd is forced to ask for help from King Alfred of England and submits to his overlordship. Alfred imposes oppressive terms and forces Anarawd to confirmation in the Christian Church with Alfred as godfather. Bishop Asser of Sherborne, writes his "Life of King Alfred"

895 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd is supplied with English troops to assist in his reconquest of Seisyllwg. He is successful and his brother, King Cadell, is finally able to take his rightful place on the Seisyllwg throne.

896 - Brycheiniog and Gwent are ravaged by Haesten and his Viking pirate army.

c.900 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog establishes his court on a crannog in the middle of Llangorse Lake.

902 - The Norsemen are expelled from Dublin. They attempt to settle in Seisyllwg, but are driven off by Prince Clydog. They move on and settle in the Wirral.

903 - The Vikings raid Anglesey.

904 - Marriage of Prince Hywel Dda of Seisyllwg to Princess Elen of Dyfed. Death of the latter's father, King Llywarch. The throne of Dyfed is claimed by Llywarch's brother, Rhodri, but he is probably forced to flee from Hywel's armies.

905 - Rhodri, nominally King of Dyfed, is caught and executed, at Arwystli, probably by his neice's husband, Hywel Dda. Hywel claims the throne of Dyfed.

909 - Death of Asser, the Welsh Bishop of Sherborne.

c.910 - Death of King Cadell of Seisyllwg. His son, King Hywel Dda unites Seisyllwg and Dyfed to form the Kingdom of Deheubarth.

914 - The Vikings harry the Welsh Coast and move up the Severn. They capture Bishop Cyfeilliog of Ergyng, but are driven out by Saxon levies from Hereford and Gloucester.

916 - Death of King Anarawd of Gwynedd. English raiders attack the court of King Tewdr of Brycheiniog at Llangorse and make off with the Queen and thirty-three of her courtiers.

917 - Brycheiniog is ravaged by the armies of Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians in revenge for the killing of the, now unknown, Abbot Ecgberht.

918 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and King Hywel Dda and Prince Clydog of Deheubarth submit to the overlordship of King Edward the Elder of England. The Vikings raid Anglesey.

927 - Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing & Gwent submit to the overlordship of King Athelstan of England at Hereford. The border between England and Wales is set at the River Wye.

928 - King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Gwynedd & Powys begins the codification of Welsh customary law.

929 - King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth goes on a pilgrimage to Rome.

931 - King Morgan Hen of Glywysing & Gwent submits to the overlordship of King Athelstan of England and attends his court with Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd.

934 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog attends the court of King Athelstan of England and signs English Land Charters. Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr of Morgannwg are compelled to accompany Athelstan on his campaign against King Constantine II of the Scots.

937 - King Athelstan of England defeats a combined Northern Army under Kings Olaf of Dublin, Constantine II of Scots and Owain of Strathclyde at the Battle of Brunanbury. Though none of the British monarchs appear to have taken part, the people of Strathclyde were a major contingent under their Scottish King. The battle finally ends all British hope of driving the Saxons from their shores.

c.937 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd distances himself from his English overlord. The British begin to use the term "Cyrmry" to speak of themselves.