599 - 937 AD
c.600 - Welsh bard, Prince Aneirin
of the Northern Pennines, writes the poem, Y Gododdin, recording the events of
the Battle of Catterick.
601 - The Synod of Chester. Death
of St. Asaph, Bishop of Llanelwy.
602 - St. Augustine of Canterbury
meets with the Welsh Bishops at Aust near Chepstow. He accuses them of acting
contrary to Church teachings, failing to keep Easter at the prescribed Roman
time and not administering baptism according to the Roman rite. He also insists
that they help in the conversion of their enemy, the Saxons, and look to
Canterbury as their spiritual centre. The Welsh tactfully decline.
604 - The Welsh Bishops meet for a
second time with St. Augustine of Canterbury. He neglects to rise to greet them,
lectures them again and insists they submit to him. The Welsh send him packing.
They refuse to recognise the authority of a church within their enemies'
territory under such a disrespectful bishop.
607 - Death of King Judhael of
Domnonée. His son, Haelioc takes the throne and attempts to exterminate his
612 - Death of St. Kentigern,
Bishop of Glasgow. Death of King Hoel III of Brittany.
613 - King Aethelfrith of Bernicia
invades Gwynedd in order to route out his old enemy, King Edwin of Deira. A
united British force (Gwynedd, Powys, Pengwern and Dumnonian warriors) clashes
with his army at the Battle of Chester. Kings Iago of Gwynedd and Selyf
Sarffgadau of Powys and Prince Cadwal Cryshalog of Rhos are all killed but the
victor is unclear. The Battle of Bangor-is-Coed follows in quick succession.
King Bledric of Dumnonia is killed in the fighting and 1000 monks are massacred
by the Northumbrians.
614 - King Cynegils of Wessex
invades Dumnonia and defeats the local army (possibly under a King Clemen) at
the Battle of Bindon.
c.614 - Proposed annexation of
Powys by the Dogfeiling Prince, Eluan Powys, with the help of his brother, King
Cynddylan of Pengwern, "oppressor of the Cadelling". The sons of the
Cadelling king, Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys, are later described as "landless
oafs". The Tarvin-Macefen boundary between Powys and Mercia is delineated.
617 - King Edwin of Deira invades
and conquers Elmet. King Ceretic of Elmet is killed in the fighting.
c.620 - King Tewdrig Fendigaid of
Glywysing & Gwent abdicates in favour of his son, Meurig. King Llywarch Hen
is expelled from South Rheged, probably by King Edwin of Deira. Llywarch flees
to Powys and becomes a famous bard.
c.623 - King Edwin of Deira is
baptised by Prince Rhun of North Rheged, according to the Historia Brittonum.
This may have been at the Royal Court of Gwynedd.
625 - King Cadfan of Gwynedd dies
and is buried at Llangadwaladr where his memorial stone can still be seen. His
son, King Cadwallon, succeeds to the throne. St. Tysilio re-founds the Monastery
c.625 - Death of King Haelioc of
Domnonée. His brother, Judicael, succeeds to the throne.
c.626 - The rivalry between King
Cadwallon of Gwynedd and King Edwin of Deira reaches a climax. Edwin invades the
Isle of Man and then Anglesey. Cadwallon is defeated in battle and is besieged
on Puffin Island. He eventually flees to Brittany.
629 - St. Paulinus meets Blecca,
the Praefectus Civitatis of Lincoln, and converts him to Christianity.
630 - The West Saxons invade
Gwent. King Meurig defeats them, with the help of his aging father, at the
Battle of Pont-y-Saeson. Death of King Neithon of Strathclyde.
c.630 - King Penda of Mercia
besieges Exeter (possibly held by King Clemen of Dumnonia). King Cadwallon of
Gwynedd lands nearby, from his Deiran imposed exile in Brittany. He negotiates
an alliance with King Penda of Mercia and a united British and Saxon force moves
north to re-take Gwynedd. The Deirans are defeated at the Battle of the Long
Mountain and Cadwallon chases them back to Northumbria. The British ransack
Northumbria and bring the kingdom to its knees.
632 - King Idris of Meirionydd is
killed fighting the West Saxons on the Severn.
633 - The British, under King
Cadwallon of Gwynedd, meet the Northumbrians in the Battle of Hatfield Chase.
King Edwin of Deira is killed in the fighting and Cadwallon is victorious.
Cadwallon is later besieged at York by Edwin's cousin and successor, Osric. The
former is again victorious.
634 - King Cadwallon of Gwynedd
slays both Kings Eanfrith of Bernicia and Osric of Deira rather than negotiate
peace with them. Eanfrith's half-brother, Oswald succeeds to a united
Northumbria. He gathers a force and clashes with King Cadwallon of Gwynedd at
the Battle of Heavenfield. Cadwallon is killed and Oswald victorius. Cadafael
Cadomedd usurps the Gwynedd throne and ousts Prince Cadwaladr. Civil War ensues
in the kingdom. Death of the great poet, King Llywarch Hen of South Rheged,
supposedly aged one hundred.
635 - King Judicael of Domnonée
submits to the overlordship of King Dagobert of the Franks. An alliance is drawn
up and the borders of the Breton kingdom agreed.
c.635 - King Meurig of Glywysing
& Gwent invades Ergyng and re-unites the two kingdoms in the right of his
636 - King Judicael of Domnonée
abdicates in order to enter the Monastery of St. Meven at Gaël. His brother,
St. Judoc, declines the throne and flees to Ponthieu.
637 - Death of the retired King
Judicael of Domnonée.
638 - Edinburgh is besieged by the
Angles of Northumbria. Princess Rhiainfelt, heiress of North Rheged, marries
Prince Oswiu of Northumbria. Northumbria embraces North Rheged in a peaceful
640 - Death of St. Tysilio, Abbot
642 - King Penda of Mercia
commands a united British and Mercian force against King Oswald of Northumbria.
The British contingent includes the army of Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd,
Eluan of Powys and Cynddylan of Pengwern. Oswald is killed, and possibly Eluan
also. The Mercians become dominant in Midland Britain. King Owen of Strathclyde
halts Scottish expansion by killing King Domnal Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle
c.645 - Gwynedd and much of Wales
is in the grasp of famine. Would be King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of Gwynedd flees to
Brittany. Civil War continues in his kingdom.
c.650 - King Cloten of Dyfed
marries Princess Ceindrech of Brycheiniog and unites the two kingdoms.
655 - King Cadafael Cadomedd of
Gwynedd and his army join King Penda of Mercia and march on the Northumbrians.
Penda clashes with King Oswiu at the Battle of Winwaed, but Cadafael
withdraws before the battle begins.
c.655 - King Morfael of Pengwern
(re-)takes Wall (Staffs).
656 - King of Oswiu of Northumbria
invades Pengwern and kills King Cynddylan in battle. His brother, King Morfael,
and the remains of the family flee to Glastening. Mercians take control of
Pengwern and may have invaded Powys at this time.
658 - King Cenwalh and the Wessex
Saxons make a push against Dumnonia (possibly under a King Culmin). They are
victorious at the Battle of Penselwood and the Dumnonia-Wessex border is set at
the River Parrett. Death of King Judicael of Brittany.
661 - King Cenwalh of Wessex
invades Dumnonia. He is victorious at the Battle of Posbury. Saxon settlers
found Somerset in Eastern Dumnonia.
662 - Death of King Brochfael of
664 - Plague devastates Gwynedd.
Probable death of King Cadafael Cadomedd there. King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of
Gwynedd reasserts himself in his kingdom by sending his son, Ifwr, from Brittany
to be regent. The Synod of Whitby determines that the Northern British should
comply with the doctrines of Rome.
665 - The Second Battle of Badon
675 - Death of St. Judoc.
c.680 - St. Boniface educated at a
Celtic Christian Monastery in Exeter.
682 - The West Saxons "drove
the British [of Dumnonia] as far as the Sea" (possibly around Bideford).
685 - St. Cuthbert visits
Carlisle. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria marches his army north to engage the
Picts at the Battle of Nechtansmere. The Scots and Strathclyde Britons
probably join the Picts in a thorough defeat of the Saxon forces. The latter
withdraw and lose much land south of the Forth to King Dumnagual of Strathclyde
in the process.
688 - King Cadwaladr Fendigaid of
Gwynedd dies on a pilgrimage to Rome.
690 - Death of King Alain II Hir
700 - King Gerren of Dumnonia
receives a letter from St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, during his attendance
at a Church Synod in Wessex. He insists that the Celtic Church of Dumnonia
comply with the doctrines of Rome, as agreed with the Northern Celtic Church
thirty-six years previously at the Synod of Whitby.
703 - Death of King Daniel
Dremrudd of Brittany.
c.705 - King Gerren of Dumnonia
grants land at Maker to Sherborne Abbey in an attempt to strengthen his position
in the disputed regions of Dorset.
710 - King Gerren of Dumnonia
clashes with King Ine of Wessex who manages to establish a fortress at Taunton.
c.710 - King Seisyll of Ceredigion
invades Dyfed and conquers Ystrad Towi to create the greater kingdom of
Seisyllwg. A reduced Dyfed and Brycheiniog both appear to have taken on the name
of Rhainwg: King Rhain's kingdom now sliced in two.
712 - Death of King Idwal Iwrch of
717 - Death of St.Winnoc, Abbot of
c.720 - Contact between the Welsh
Church and Yvi of Brittany is the last known link between the two Celtic
countries. After this, each nation goes its own separate way.
722 - King Ine of Wessex attempts
a takeover of Dumnonia. His armies are crushed and have to withdraw. Death of
King Bili of Strathclyde. King Teudebur succeeds to the throne.
c.730 - Civil War between King
Tewdr of Brycheiniog and a rival claimant to his throne, his cousin, Awst. The
latter is slain. Tewdr is persuaded to live in peace with Awst's son, Elwystl.
c.731 - King Elisedd of Powys
expels the Mercians from his kingdom.
c.740 - Death of King Rhain of
Dyfed & Brycheiniog. His kingdoms are divided between his two sons.
743 - Kings Aethelbald of Mercia
and Ceolred of Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.
c.744 - Construction of Wat's
Dyke. The border between Mercia and Powys is set here.
750 - The Strathclyde Britons
under King Teudebur defeat Prince Talorgen of the Picts at the Battle of
Mugdock. Decline of the power of King Angus I of the Picts.
c.750 - Prince Elidyr ap Sandde
moves the exiled Royal House of South Rheged from Powys to the Isle of Man. King
Tewdr of Brycheiniog breaks the peace with his cousin, Elwystl, and murders him.
752 - Death of King Teudebur of
Strathclyde. His son, Dumnagual, succeeds to the throne and promptly loses Kyle
to King Eadberht of Northumbria.
754 - Death of King Rhodri
Molwynog of Gwynedd. His sons, Kings Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel succeed to the
756 - Kings Angus I of the the
Picts and Eadberht of Northumbria attack King Dumnagual of Strathclyde at
Dumbarton. However, Eadberht's entire force is subsequently wiped out, probably
by the Britons, at the Battle of Newburgh-on-Tyne.
760 - The Battle of Hereford is
fought probably between the Mercians and the Kingdom of Brycheiniog under King
Nowy Hen. Death of King Dumnagual of Strathclyde.
768 - Archbishop Elfoddw of
Gwynedd persuades the Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter as
agreed by the Northern British Church at the Synod of Whitby.
784 - Construction of Offa's Dyke,
the artificial bank and ditch boundary between England and Wales, is begun at
the command of King Offa of Mercia.
c.795 - Quarrels between Kings
Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel leave the way open for Caradog ap Meirchion (of the
House of Rhos) to usurp the throne of Gwynedd.
797 - Welsh forces, including
those of Powys and Dyfed, clash with the Mercians at the Battle of Rhuddlan,
when King Coenwulf tries to re-assert his domination of North-East Wales. King
Maredydd of Dyfed is killed in the fighting. The Mercians push on westward.
798 - King Caradog of Gwynedd is
killed fighting the Mercians of King Coenwulf in Snowdonia. Kings Cynan
Tindaethwy and Hywel retake the throne.
c.805 - King Egbert of Wessex
formally establishes kingship over the people of Devon after a gradual
integration over many years. Dumnonia is reduced to cover only the Cornish in
807 - Death of of King Arthwyr of
808 - Death of Kings Rhain of
Dyfed and Cadell of Powys.
809 - Death of Archbishop Elfoddw
810 - St. Davids is burnt.
811 - Death of King Owain of
Dyfed. His son-in-law, Hyfaidd takes the throne.
812 - Degannwy, the capital of
Gwynedd, is struck by lighning and burnt to the ground.
813 - King Hywel and Cynan
Tindaethwy of Gwynedd quarrel again and meet in battle. Hywel is victorious.
814 - Prince Gryffydd of Powys is
slain through the treachery of his brother Elisedd. King Cynan Tindaethwy of
Gwynedd invades Anglesey and attacks his brother, Hywel. Hywel is victorious and
Cynan is driven from his shores.
815 - The Kingdom of Cerniw is
raided by King Egbert of Wessex and his Saxon armies from East to West.
816 - King Hywel of Gwynedd is
again attacked by his brother King Cynan on Anglesey. Cynan is killed. The
English successfully invade Rhufoniog and also ravage the Snowdonia Mountains.
818 - King Coenwulf of Mercia
821 - King Coenwulf of Mercia dies
in Basingwerk while preparing for another assault on Powys.
823 - The Mercians invade Powys,
but are beaten back by King Cyngen. They also destroy the Gwynedd capital,
825 - Death of King Rhodri of
Gwynedd. The kingdom is seized by his grand-nephew, Prince Merfyn Frych of Man
(and South Rheged). The men of Cerniw make a push into Saxon Devon and the two
armies clash at the Battle of Galford. The Cornish are probably victorious.
c.830 - Nynniaw, Abbot of Bangor
Fawr, compiles the Historia Brittonum.
831 - Death of Bishop Sadyrnfyw of
838 - The British of Cerniw join
forces with the Vikings and attack Saxon Wessex. King Egbert defeats them at the
Battle of Hingston Down.
840 - Nobis becomes Bishop of St.
844 - Death of King Merfyn Frych
of Gwynedd. His son, Rhodri Mawr, succeeds to the throne.
848 - The armies of Brycheiniog
and Gwent clash at the Battle of Ffinnant. King Ithel of Gwent is killed in the
c.850 - "Eliseg's
Pillar" is erected in Llantysilio-yn-Ial by King Cyngen of Powys as a
memorial to his great grandfather King Elisedd (or Eliseg) and the power of the
Powysian dynasty. Bishop Censteg of Dingerein (Cerniw) accepts the authority of
Archbishop Ceolnoth of Canterbury.
853 - Mercia and Wessex attack
854 - King Cyngen of Powys dies on
a pilgrimage to Rome. His throne is seized by his nephew, King Rhodri Mawr of
Gwynedd, and his sons expelled.
855 - Anglesey is ravaged by
856 - King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd
& Powys repels a major Viking invasion of Wales and kills their king, Gorm.
871 - Dumbarton, capital of King
Artgal of Strathclyde, is destroyed by King Olaf of Norse Dublin and his Viking
872 - Death of King Gwrgon of
Seisyllwg by drowning. The throne is taken by his son-in-law, King Rhodri Mawr
of Gwynedd & Powys. King Artgal of Strathclyde is slain through the
connivance of King Constantine I of Alba and his Viking allies. Artgal's son,
Run, succeeds to the Strathclyde throne.
874 - Death of Bishop Nobis of St.
876 - Death of Dungarth, the last
King of Cerniw. He was drowned during a hunting accident and buried at St.
877 - The Vikings invade Wales
once more and King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd, Powys & Seisyllwg is forced to
flee to Ireland.
878 - King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd,
Powys and Seisyllwg returns to his kingdoms, but is killed fighting the Mercians
of King Ceolwulf II. His kingdoms are divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd,
Merfyn and Cadell respectively. The Vikings winter in Dyfed. Death of King Run
of Strathclyde. His son, Eochaid, succeeds to the throne and allies himself with
his mother's cousin, King Giric of Alba. The two rule all Scotland together as
880 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd
initiates a revenge attack on the Mercian armies and defeats them on the River
c.881 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd
and his brothers begin extensive military campaigns to quell resistance in Powys
885 - Asser, a relative of Nobis,
Bishop of St. Davids, is summoned to the court of King Alfred of England. He
agrees to spend six months of the year in the King's service. Asser helps to
enhance the literary status of the English Court and also to negotiate the
recognition of Alfred as overlord of the South Welsh Kings.
c.885 - Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed,
Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing are harassed by the armies of King
Anarawd of Gwynedd. They seek the protection of King Alfred of England and
submit to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance with the Norse Kings of
889 - Kings Eochaid and Giric of
Alba, Strathclyde & the Picts are deposed by Viking invaders. The former's
cousin takes the throne as King Donald II. The end of independent Strathclyde
890 - King Donald II of Alba
expels the British aristorcracy of Strathclyde. They flee south to North Wales.
893 - Death of King Hyfaidd of
c.893 - Asser, the Welshman, is
made Bishop of Sherborne.
894 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd's
shaky alliance with the Vikings collapses. His kingdom is ravaged by the
Norsemen. Anarawd is forced to ask for help from King Alfred of England and
submits to his overlordship. Alfred imposes oppressive terms and forces Anarawd
to confirmation in the Christian Church with Alfred as godfather. Bishop Asser
of Sherborne, writes his "Life of King Alfred"
895 - King Anarawd of Gwynedd is
supplied with English troops to assist in his reconquest of Seisyllwg. He is
successful and his brother, King Cadell, is finally able to take his rightful
place on the Seisyllwg throne.
896 - Brycheiniog and Gwent are
ravaged by Haesten and his Viking pirate army.
c.900 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog
establishes his court on a crannog in the middle of Llangorse Lake.
902 - The Norsemen are expelled
from Dublin. They attempt to settle in Seisyllwg, but are driven off by Prince
Clydog. They move on and settle in the Wirral.
903 - The Vikings raid Anglesey.
904 - Marriage of Prince Hywel Dda
of Seisyllwg to Princess Elen of Dyfed. Death of the latter's father, King
Llywarch. The throne of Dyfed is claimed by Llywarch's brother, Rhodri, but he
is probably forced to flee from Hywel's armies.
905 - Rhodri, nominally King of
Dyfed, is caught and executed, at Arwystli, probably by his neice's husband,
Hywel Dda. Hywel claims the throne of Dyfed.
909 - Death of Asser, the Welsh
Bishop of Sherborne.
c.910 - Death of King Cadell of
Seisyllwg. His son, King Hywel Dda unites Seisyllwg and Dyfed to form the
Kingdom of Deheubarth.
914 - The Vikings harry the Welsh
Coast and move up the Severn. They capture Bishop Cyfeilliog of Ergyng, but are
driven out by Saxon levies from Hereford and Gloucester.
916 - Death of King Anarawd of
Gwynedd. English raiders attack the court of King Tewdr of Brycheiniog at
Llangorse and make off with the Queen and thirty-three of her courtiers.
917 - Brycheiniog is ravaged by
the armies of Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians in revenge for the killing of
the, now unknown, Abbot Ecgberht.
918 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd
and King Hywel Dda and Prince Clydog of Deheubarth submit to the overlordship of
King Edward the Elder of England. The Vikings raid Anglesey.
927 - Kings Hywel Dda of
Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing & Gwent submit to the overlordship of King
Athelstan of England at Hereford. The border between England and Wales is set at
the River Wye.
928 - King Hywel Dda of
Deheubarth, Gwynedd & Powys begins the codification of Welsh customary law.
929 - King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth
goes on a pilgrimage to Rome.
931 - King Morgan Hen of Glywysing
& Gwent submits to the overlordship of King Athelstan of England and attends
his court with Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd.
934 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog
attends the court of King Athelstan of England and signs English Land Charters.
Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr of
Morgannwg are compelled to accompany Athelstan on his campaign against King
Constantine II of the Scots.
937 - King Athelstan of England
defeats a combined Northern Army under Kings Olaf of Dublin, Constantine II of
Scots and Owain of Strathclyde at the Battle of Brunanbury. Though none of the
British monarchs appear to have taken part, the people of Strathclyde were a
major contingent under their Scottish King. The battle finally ends all British
hope of driving the Saxons from their shores.
c.937 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd
distances himself from his English overlord. The British begin to use the term
"Cyrmry" to speak of themselves.